Space as the Agent of Gravity
We have seen how important space is in the small or atomic sense. Now we will see that space is very important in the large or cosmic sense. Matter we can see, space we cannot. Space is the invisible part of the universe. But it is the construction worker of the visible universe. Through the process of gravity, space builds planets, stars, moons out of jagged matter. But now that leads us to ask: what is gravity? Commonly, and simplistically, gravity is thought of as a fundamental force that attracts matter to matter.
Historically it is mostly strongly associated with Newton, the first scientist to calculate it as 32 feet per second per second (rate increases by 32 feet each second); this is a measure of the rate of fall of objects on earth. Gravity is a centripetal force, Newton asserted, pulling objects down to the center of the earth. Newton offered no theory to the cause of gravity: “I have not yet learned the cause of gravity from the phenomena.” and “The cause of gravity is what I do not pretend to know,” wrote he. His greatest wisdom was renouncing the idea of innate gravity:
It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else which is not material, operate upon and affect other matter, without mutual contact, as it must do if gravitation in the sense of Epicurus be essential and inherent in it. And this is one reason why I desired you would not ascribe ‘innate gravity’ to me. That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at a distance, through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity, that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it. Gravity must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws; but whether this agent be material or immaterial, I have left to the consideration of my readers.
Newton did not know what the agent of gravity was. However, even if he believed space to be the agent of gravity, he could not envision a model for gravity.
Einstein was the first scientist to offer a widely accepted theory of gravity. His model for gravity uses space as the physical field; this very fact was revolutionary. Einstein envisioned planets curve or shape space around them producing a warp where matter falls into. This means the rotating planets are in free fall – not in a downward direction, but in an elliptical path.
But since we are wondering about why planets are round, let us use Einstein’s reasoning and ask: If planets shape space, then is it not just as logical to assume that space shapes planets? Is it not space that forms senselessly jagged rock into beautifully round heavenly bodies? Of course!
Earlier we considered space as a three-dimensional field, where astronomic bodies fly in. In fact, space may well be considered as the ocean of the universe; just like the oceans of the earth where sea creatures swim in, space is the invisible ocean where planets fly in. Now let us ask what happens to water when something is placed in it? Naturally, the water must go somewhere. The answer is displacement. The object takes the place of the water and pushes it out. Likewise, when Earth is placed in space, it displaces the space and pushes it out.
A planet and space cannot occupy the same place. Each astronomic body displaces space.
Now let us pose another question: How much water does an object placed in water displace? Should we measure it by volume? Or by mass? Volume, because water cannot enter an object, provided its material is water impermeable. Even a hollow object would displace the same amount of water as a very dense one. But space is different. Space can enter a hollow physical object. Space cannot enter a solid body. Thus, mass, a measure of matter in a physical body, is the right measurement of displaced space.
Using this reasoning, let us ask: how much space does the earth displace? The displacement of space is directly proportional to the mass in the body. We may say Earth displaces an earth load of space. Likewise, Mars displaces a Mars load of space, and the largest astronomic body, the sun displaces a Sun load of space.
Earth’s mass is 5.97 x 10^24 kg. Thus, Earth displaces a mass equivalent of 5.97 x 10^24 in space. Mars’s mass is 6.42 x 10^23 kg. Thus, it displaces the mass equivalent of 6.42 x 10^23 kg in space, and most significantly, the most massive astronomic body, the sun displaces the mass equivalent of 1,988,500 x 10^24 kg in space. Notice, we used the term mass equivalent as opposed to mass. We don’t know the mass conversion rate (within a given density) between matter and space. One thing is certain, since space is a very diluted substance, the difference of physical mass to space mass would be very large.
Each physical body displaces its mass in space.
By assigning space mass and quantifying it, we have acknowledged its physical existence-every physical substance ought to be quantifiable-and we have measured the cumulative load surrounding a planet. Now let us ask, what effect does displaced space have on a planet? We could well say: it weighs down on the planet, thus resulting in gravity. We are along the right path. However, the mass of space cannot cause gravity because like matter, it has no absolute weight.
It is space’s structure that causes gravity. Earlier we asserted space is composed of strings or tiny discrete dashes. When left alone out in the open, they form an orderly grid. Now let us ask: What happens to the structure of space when it is not out in the open but rather displaced? Certainly, the strings cannot possibly maintain their neat and spacious grid if they are being pushed out by gigantic planets. Indeed! The space lines are compressed into springs; this new compressed structure gives them power to push down.
The springs of space press down on every planet, causing gravity.
The space surrounding an astronomic body that has been displaced and compressed by that body and exerts a downward force on it evenly from all angles.
Earth presses up. Space presses down.
Because planets are usually of different mass, they compress a different amount of space. Gravity may be a universal phenomenon, but it always operates at a local rate of space pressure.
The pressure of space is determined by a planet’s mass.
Compressed space remains closest to the surface of a planet and decompresses at an even rate out by distance. It extends well out into outer space and has a round shape, the very shape of the planet that displaces and compresses it. Conversely, as we stated, just as matter compresses space, space compresses matter! Planets are large compressed balls of matter. Where compressed space ends, a planet’s gravity ends. The larger and more massive the planet, the more compressed space it has on its surface, the stronger its pull on surface objects; the more compressed space in its outer space, the stronger its pull on nearby astronomic bodies like moons and comets. The sun displaces and compresses so much space that its power is so far reaching, it extends all the way out to the end of the solar system or further.
Through compressed space planets that do not touch can affect the motion of each other. If two separate planets, come near each other, their compressed space will make mutual contact, or blend, resulting in mutual attraction, bringing the two bodies together.
Of course, this creates an orbital relationship; over large astronomic distances, compressed space, strong as it is, cannot pull planets together. But it can pull the small planet around the large one.
Meanwhile, the compressed space around small objects, such as those found on earth, is too weak to pull them to each other.
The stars of the galaxy are held together by gravity. This could only mean the compressed space around stars is large enough to reach each other. Scientists tell us that even the galaxies are pulled together by gravity. This means that galaxies as an accumulation of matter have so much compressed space around them that they reach all the way to the neighboring galaxies. The compressed space around the Milky Way reaches all the way to the compressed space of the Andromeda galaxy; their space makes mutual contact and blends, pulling the two galaxies together. Considering gravity is present everywhere, all space in the universe is compressed to some extent.
Space and Weight
Now let us pose this question: If space presses down on earth, why can’t we feel it? We can’t physically feel space is because it is only half real. Thus, to the touch, it feels like nothing; it has no physically discernable material structure. But “the pressure of space” can be felt on material objects; for what we lift, lifts the pressure of space.
This all means mass has no absolute weight. Weight is space pressing down on mass.
Weight is external. Mass is made to weigh by the pressure of space.
To move anything is to move space out of place; because all space presses down, weight is created. To lift mass up is to lift the space on top of it up. To move mass sideways is to move space sideways. The amount of space moved is the amount of mass in the object.
Weight is the amount of space pressure an object “holds” above it. We can quantify space pressure: for example, when we lift an object that weighs 20 pounds, we lift 20 pounds of space pressure. An object that weighs 30 pounds lifts 30 pounds of space pressure. Weight is a measure of heaviness of an object, under the force of a planet’s unique amount of space pressure. It is a product of its mass and the local planet’s rate of space pressure.
Weight = mass x space pressure (force per unit of mass)
The more massive an object, the most space pressure it holds, the heavier it is. Most importantly, let us remember weight is due to an external pressure from space; it is not internal. It is dependent on the planet’s compressed space.
As we know, to move an object sideways is much easier than to move it up. In fact, only space on top of an object presses down. Space to the side of an object has no effect on it, because without pressure, space has no resistance. It is the top space that presses down on an object that makes moving it sideways difficult. Likewise, space beneath an object has no impact on it.
Objects remove space in the direction they move.
Gravity is one four universal forces. The three other forces of the universe-the strong nuclear, the weak nuclear, and electromagnetism-each have been shown to be a current of subatomic particles. For a few decades scientists have postulated that a quantum model of gravity may be devised, if only the graviton, an elementary particle, may be discovered. It is possible that a compressed space particle is the graviton; compressed space is near massless and does travel at the speed of light.
Individual mini-springs of space
If we take the quantum view of gravity, then we can hypothesize that the flow of compressed space strings creates an attractive current between separate physical bodies, like magnetism or electricity, which is also a current. However, although the other three physical forces are each a current of particles, it is probable gravity is unique from the other forces and is not a current. Nevertheless, in the words of Newton, whether quantum mechanics is the best model of gravity or not, “I have left it to the consideration of my reader.”
We have at last come to the end of our discussion of space and gravity. We have speculated and argued about the philosophical and physical reason Earth is round, the nature of space, the nature of gravity, and the nature of weight. What we have most learned is that space, an entity, that is not understood, sometimes just ignored, and most often labelled as mysterious and dark, is in fact responsible for so much. The visible universe, matter, owes, a whole lot to the invisible universe, space. So much so, that the visible came from the invisible. Moreover, as we argued, gravity is space pressure. I believe this is not the end of our understanding of space and gravity. More discoveries are certain to be made in the future which will contribute to a more comprehensive and detailed explanation of space and gravity. Some of the speculations in this essay may be proven to be false while others will be proven to be true. In any case, science must begin with hypothesis and speculation. Thank you for your attention and keep thinking!