Scanderbeg: King of Albania

I really don’t know if I can do this man justice. He is the most renowned national hero to us, the Albanian people. However, if we go back in time into antiquity, we may find more renowned, more famous figures, such as emperors Constantine, Diocletian, or Justinian of the Roman Empire. In fact, for that matter, there were nineteen Roman Emperors believed to be of Illyrian origin, an astonishingly high number if you ask me. However, these leaders furthered the Roman cause and not the Albanian cause and for that reason we Albanians do not revere them. Also, over 1500 years separate us, the moderns, from them, the ancients. Thus, we really trace our roots, the founding of our modern nation to Scanderbeg. We view him as our national hero and founding father. Just as America has George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and the like, we have Scanderbeg. His figure combines fact and fiction, struggle and glory, myth, and truth. Although members of other noble families in his time such as the Dukagjini Family, or the Arianiti family were important, Scanderbeg we may call the king of Albania.

Let me give you a few facts. Scanderbeg was born in 1405 as Gjergj (George) Kastrioti. His father lost his fortress to the invaders, the Ottoman Turks, and his sons, Gjergj and his two brothers, were taken hostage, a cruel yet not uncommon practice, in the Ottoman Empire. While in Adrianople, Gjergj as a youth proved himself capable at war games, just what the Turks were looking for. In his first battle as leader, he did so well that the Sultan, gave him the nick name Iskender Bey, or Lord Alexander, a reference to Alexander the Great. He was known as a great warrior right from the start. He would remain in Ottoman service for twenty years, both as a general and as a governor of several provinces. When the Albanians, who longed for freedom and independence from their new Turkish masters, heard of one of their own, ever so strong, and capable, they dreamed of him to come and rescue them.

Scanderbeg was a symbol of pride and hope for Albania. Although he had his plan in mind, he was wise, patient, and strategic. He was not going rush it and loose his opportunity by attacking the Turks at the wrong time. He waited a lifetime for the right moment to realize his youthful dream. When Scanderbeg was an Ottoman general, several rebellions against the Ottomans broke out, the most notable one being in Hungary, led by Hunyadi. Scanderbeg was called to crush the Hungarians. But since he himself wanted to join the rebellion, and knowing the Hungarians were stronger, he led his troops into a battle that he knew they were destined to lose. Thereupon, he switched allegiance to Albania and forced the Ottoman secretary to write a decree issuing the fortress of Kruja over to him. With this in hand, he rode to back to his father’s fortress and took possession of it. He received a hero’s welcome and made a reclamation of his family’s old feudal territory which the Ottomans had taken. But Scanderbeg’s ultimate mission was to unite the whole of Albania into one country, Christian, and free from the Islamic Turks.

We often think of the Ottoman Turks as Scanderbeg’s only enemy, but there was another major power that had prodded all the way down to Albania, Venice. The Venetian republic held political sway in several cities in northern Albania. Venice was opportunistic, underhanded, and scheming playing both sides, Turkey and Albania. At first it was pro Scanderbeg. Then when it perceived his power, it turned into an enemy of Scanderbeg. It proved to be a major hindrance to his plans for liberty.  To Venice, a mercantile power, Albanian liberty was bad for business because if Albania threw off Turkey, then Venice would be next. So, they conspired with the Ottomans against Albania. Venice openly set out to assassinate Scanderbeg. Scanderbeg’s went to war with Venice. He defeated them in two battles. In the end, a peace treaty was signed. However, when Hunyadi mounted another campaign against the Ottomans, Venetian machinations delayed Scanderbeg from joining him, resulting in a loss that gave much ground to the Ottomans. Scanderbeg’s biggest ally was Naples, under King Alfonso, whose rival was also Venice.

Scanderbeg’s army was always undermanned. While the Ottomans had 20 – 25 thousand soldiers, he usually had about 10 – 15 thousand. These battles he regularly won. Historians only count one defeat, that of Berat where he went against him own intuition by listening to others. In the most astonishing battle, Scanderbeg fought his personal enemy, Sultan Murad II, the man who had favored Gjergj in his youth, and had nick named him Lord Alexander. Murad viewed him as a terrible traitor, and he really wanted to get his revenge on him. Thus, he came with an army of 100,000 soldiers against Scanderbeg’s army of merely 8000. Though one would assume a certain defeat, Scanderbeg successfully resisted the Ottomans. His army didn’t meet them “down in the field.” In that case, the Turks would have crushed a small army of 8000. He strategically hid his archers in the mountains, and they struck the Turks from the upper vantage points. Skanderbeg’s men harassed the Turks to the point of frustration and defeat. The Ottomans retreated and Scanderbeg would go on to have similar victories where his army was very tiny, and Turkey was very large. For this fact alone, Scanderbeg baffles reason. But owing to tactics of guerilla warfare with traps and pouncing, the Albanians did the impossible.

Scanderbeg was physically gifted, big, and strong; these were the days when battles were fought with swords, bows, and spears. Though it is true guns and cannons were a recent invention, and in limited use.  He himself was in frontline combat. He was also gifted at war strategy, brave or even reckless. He was a great leader on and off the battlefield. He was seriously injured only once. Scanderbeg really embraced the cause of the Albanian people: the love of liberty, self-rule, and Christianity. Albania was on the geographic frontline in the battle of Christian Europe against the Islamic East. Scanderbeg lived in a time only 200 years removed from the crusades, when the Christians of Europe went to war to capture Holy Land. Scanderbeg too viewed himself as a defender of the faith. For this reason, the Pope was his biggest supporter and called him a champion of Christ. European leaders often used the word Crusade against the Ottomans, implying a holy war. They united on the basis of faith in order to prevent conversion.

Scanderbeg’s myth spread during and after his time as a warrior who was invincible to human weapons. Certainly, the myth of Scanderbeg has been exaggerated; that’s what myths are, exaggerations. But I dare say there is a kernel of truth here. We’re talking about a leader who had far fewer resources, far fewer men, and he defended his nation against invasion from an army that outnumbered his ten to one or more. Scanderbeg’s story is really the story of David versus Goliath, the extreme underdog versus the giant. If war be a talent, Scanderbeg had it. Now, I’m not sure war is a good thing; in fact, war is good for nothing, if you ask me, but it’s the nature of life, I suppose. We sometimes need war even though we’re all against it. We all want peace. But if there must be war, we need Scanderbeg on our side.

It is interesting to know that today, we Albanians consider the birth of our modern nation with Scanderbeg’s principality even though after his death, in 1468, followed over 450 years of Ottoman occupation. We overlook half a millennium of foreign domination! This fact alone says something about the strength of our national identity and about the nature of nationhood in general. It cannot easily be crushed even when bigger and more powerful neighbors are aiming to assimilate you and take your land.

Sources:
Zavalani, Tajar. History of Albania. London, 1963. Reprint, Robert Elsie and Bejtullah Destani, 2015.

“Skanderbeg.” Wikipedia. Accessed August 18, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skanderbeg

“Illyrian Emperors.” Wikipedia. Accessed August 17, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrian_emperors

Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo: A Short History. New York: HarperPerennial, 1999.

Shqipëria: Emri dhe Flamuri

English

Emri Ilir ka mbijetuar si një hallkë lidhëse midis popullit shqiptar modern dhe popullit paraardhës të tij, Ilirët. Emri Ilir ka kuptimin i lirë/i çliruar. Ai është i përhapur edhe sot, e radhitet me emra të tjerë nga antikiteti, që ju takojnë udhëheqësve të Fiseve Ilire, si Teuta, Genti dhe Agroni.

Shpesh është menduar që emri Albania vjen nga fjala Alpet, por kjo hipotezë nuk duket shumë bindëse. Një teori më e mundëshme është që emri Albania rrjedh nga emri Arbëria. Një nga fiset e lashta Ilire, me troje në Shqipërinë qëndrore, quhej Arbëria. Ky emër ka kuptimin kopësht, ose lëndinë. Në shekullin e II-të AD, gjeografi Ptoleme gjithashtu e përcaktoi truallin e Arbërisë në Shqipërinë qëndrore, por ai e deformoi fjalën duke e quajtur atë Albanoi.

Në fakt ne e quajmë veten tonë shqipëtarë. Ky emër siç dihet rjedh nga fjala shqiponjë – Shqipëria, vëndi i shqiponjave. Gjuha që flasim quhet shqipe, e cila përsëri vjen nga fjala shqiponjë. Por si ndodhi që populli ynë u quajt shqipëtarë. Kush është gjeneza e këtj emri. Fjala Shqipëri duhet ta ketë origjinën nga shqiponja në flamurin tonë—këtë flamur heroi ynë kombëtar, Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu (1405-1468) e ngriti në Kështjellën e Krujës në vitin 1443. Skënderbeu e mbajti truallin Arbëror dhe flamurin e tij të pavarur nga Perandoria Otomane për 25 vjetë me radhë.

Simboli i shqiponjës me dy krerë ka qenë i pranishëm në të gjithë Perandorisë Bizantine, por interesante është që historia e tij edhe më hershëme. Pyetja shtrohet se kur ka filluar ky simbol të cilin Perandoria Bizantine e adopoi si të vetin. Mendohet që emblema është krijuar së pari në botën e lashtë të antikitetit. Fillimet e saj gjenden rreth 3500 vjetë përpara, ose afërsisht 1600 BC. Ajo është përdorur për herë të parë nga Maisenean dhe Hititët.

Maisenea (Mycenae) i takon epokës më të hershme të civilizimit Grak. Maisenean konsiderohen të lashtë edhe për vetë Greqinë Klasike me fillim rreth 600 BC — do me thënë Maisenean janë 1000 vjetë përpara Grekëve të lashtë. Hititët kanë qenë bashkëkohës me Maisenean dhe kanë jetuar në Turqinë qëndrore.

Shqiponja Hittite — Turqia Qendrore
Shqiponja e Maiseneas — Greqia e Jugut

Në të dy popujt, emblema e shqiponjës me dy krerë, është përdorur nga familje princërore, si tregues i një ranku të lartë shoqëror. Por duhet të theksojmë që emblemat nuk janë identike – ato kanë veçoritë e tyre. Shqiponja Hitite është e skalitur në gur dhe ka përmasa afërsisht 50x40cm. Në të dy këmbët ajo mban nga një lepur. Shqiponja Maisenean ka përmasat e një varseje gushe dhe është e larë me flori. Eshtë vështirë të thuhet se cili nga popujt e krijoi i pari këtë simbol — ndoshta ata të dy e krijuan gati njëkohësisht.

Le të flasim pak për kuptimin emblemës, sepse shpesh emblemat dhe simbolet kanë një kuptim madje dhe një histori të tyren. Shqiponja me dy krerë duket se simbolizon një kryqëzim të Lindjes dhe Perëndimit, një pikë takimi të tyre. Afërsisht 1000 vjetë pas krijimit të emblemës, një histori nisi të qarkullojë për Delfin, një qendër kryesore e Grqisë së lashtë, ku gjendej një tempull adhurimi i perëndisë Apollo, nga orakëll Paithia (Pythia).

Sipas mitologjisë Greke, zoti i qiejve, Zeusi, lëshoi nga fundi i botës dy shqiponja, dhe atje ku do të takoheshin ato, ose kryqëzoheshin, atje do të ishte qendra e botës. Zeusi lëshoi një gur të madh nga qielli, nga vendi ku u kryqëzuan zogjtë, dhe guri ra në Delfi. Ky i fundit u quajt qendra e botës dhe gjithashtu pika e takimit të Lindjes me Perëndimin. Në fakt emri origjinal i Delfit ka qënë Krisa, që do të thotë kryqëzim, ose udhëkryq. Sipas kësaj historie del se nuk kemi të bëjmë një shqiponjë me dy krerë, por kemi të bëjmë me dy shqiponja që kryqëzohen në fluturim. Njëra shikon nga Lindja dhe tjetra nga Perëndimi.

Për Romakët që pushtuan Greqinë ky simbol mori kuptimin e dominimit mbi Lindjen dhe Perëndimin. Shekuj më vonë, në kohën e Perandorisë Bizantine dhe asaj Otomane, Skënderbeu, i cili jetoi në kryqëzim të lindjes dhe perëndimit pa dyshim e ka pëlqyer dhe vlerësuar këtë simbol. Ai e përdori atë për flamurin e popullit Shqipëtar dhe për mburojat e ushtarëve. Kështu populli filloi ta quajë veten Shqipëtarë, do me thënë populli i shqiponjave.

perktheu: Lulieta Shetuni