Space, the ocean of the universe

Space is not material in the traditional sense. Unlike matter space is not tangible. Yet, like matter, space has structure, which suggests it is real, if only to some extent. While the structure of matter is atomic, the structure of space is most likely string.  The strings of space crisscross each other in an orderly fashion to form a lattice or grid. 

Space probably cannot be sucked by a vacuum or blown by a fan. Space can however be heated and cooled. This can be proved by the fact that the sun’s heat travels through space. Heat is motion. This means that space strings are set in motion by the sun’s heat. In fact, like atoms, which are always moving, space strings are probably always in some degree of motion.

While matter is composed of many elements-92 known naturally occurring elements-space probably has only one type of string. Space strings are so small and light that alone they have very little, infinitesimal mass. However, since the universe is so large, most of the mass in the universe is dispersed as space. While space has loose and dispersed mass, matter has a strong concentration of mass. This is what makes it matter. Although space has mass, it has no gravity.  As we shall argue, gravity is not an innate property of mass. It is produced by the relationship of matter to space. Space is instrumental to the creation of gravity, but it by itself has none.

Space does not transmit sound waves, yet it transmits light waves. Because space strings are much lighter than the atoms of matter, they can be waved back and forth by light energy much faster. Thus light travels much faster than sound, which travels through matter.  Moreover the speed of sound varies by the element that is being waved. Light elements mean faster speed, and higher pitch. Because space only has one type of string, the speed of light is constant. Also, since we know the speed of light to be: 299 792 458 meters / second, we can deduce the speed of a string of space to be: 299 792 458 meters / second.

A string of space is the lightest thing in the universe, much lighter than even the lightest element of matter, hydrogen, and even lighter than all sub-atomic particles. Photons, gluons and gravitons are said to be the lightest of all elementary particles. In fact they are said to be massless because their motion is unencumbered through space. However, it can be argued they are not massless bur rather simply are mass-equivalent to a string of space. Theoretically, everything that exists must have mass, if only a little bit. Thus, it is strange to call these particles massless; perhaps a better name is near-massless, meaning they have enough mass to exist, but not enough mass to be measurable.

Just like everything in the universe, which has a lifespan-a beginning, middle, and end-the strings of space also have a lifespan. Since they are so small, it’s possible their lifespan is very extreme in either direction, very short or very long. They may have the shortest lifespan in the universe. However, atoms, which are very small, have a very long lifespan; billions of years. This could mean space strings have a long atomic-like life span. Whatever the case, one thing is true: Space will outlast matter. The universe began with empty space, and it will end with empty space… then it perhaps will shrink back into a void. For now, just like life, space strings are always replaced by new strings.

 In fact, since the universe is growing, this can only mean that “the population” of space strings is always increasing. Physicists call this phenomenon expansion. Space has been expanding since the moment it burst out of the infinitely small dot, at the universe’s birth. As space expands, it carries matter with it: all galaxies are carried further out into the periphery of the universe.

Currently, scientists have not physically seen or identified space or its tiny strings, but they have found something called dark matter, a mysterious entity that does not reflect light. 94 percent of the universe is dark matter; since space is just as abundant, dark matter, is quite likely space itself. Moreover, as stated earlier, light and other forms of electro-magnetic radiation travel via waves composed of very small, sub-microscopic discrete dashes called quanta. This suggests that scientists already have an idea of the strings of space. Photons, the discrete dashes of light, are seemingly dashes of space. The assumption that space has never been seen is not true; in fact, quite the opposite; we see everything through space, the sub-material substance whose particles, called photons, light up physical reality.

In string theory, scientists believe matter at its most basic level is composed of strings, which are also discrete. This suggests that space is the foundation of matter. The first subatomic particles in the universe (electrons, neutrons, photons, gluons etc.) likely were created out of the fusion of loose space, due to extreme heat at the Big Bang. In fact, even today, scientists claim small sub-atomic particles are constantly being created in the vacuum of empty space. This suggests the vacuum is not empty. It is full of space, the raw material for matter.

The strings of space are the most fundamental structure in the whole universe. The atom is made up of subatomic particles such as protons, electrons, photons and quarks. These components however resemble space more than matter: like space, they have no internal parts, and some of them-photons and gluons-have no real mass. They are tiny strings of space, the universe’s most fundamental structure.

Matter is built from a dense concentration of space. It has so many strings of space, that it has real, measurable mass. Einstein’s famous equation E=MC^2 asserts that energy is found within matter. Let us imagine two strings of space colliding at the speed of light, as the equation states. When the two separate fibers of space are fused their overall mass contains the motion, kinetic energy, of light speed plus the infinitesimal mass they individually possess. In other words, the addition is greater than the two separate units. This suggests that by fusing countless fibers of space in a chain reaction, real mass can be created.

It is possible that at the big bang, the major growth spurt of the newborn universe, the population of space strings expanded drastically. These fibers collided with each other with extreme heat energy “and stuck together,” leading to the first sub-atomic particles. These collided to form hydrogen. Then gravity formed stars with hydrogen. Then, as scientists state, due to extreme heat within stars, the other elements of matter were fused together in their core; hydrogen, the first and lightest element, is fused into helium, helium into deuterium, etc. The elements are expelled when those stars explode in a supernova if they are large enough to do so.

further reading: The Goldilocks Enigma by Paul Davies The Cosmic Landscape by Leonard Susskind

Why are planets round?

Let us ask what makes a planet round? Is it just luck? Or is it logic? The answer is logic. The round shape indicates a perfect balance; the distance of any point on the surface of a sphere and the center is always even from all sides. But is balance important? Yes, the laws of physics are the laws of balance in physical nature. Newton wrote, “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction,” indicating balance.

the rule of balance

The result of a physical interaction between two bodies is the establishment of balance.

Bingo! We have discovered the root cause: Why is the earth round? For the establishment of balance. However, our answer, though most fundamental, is philosophical. All root, fundamental causes are logical. But science is not the study of root, logical causes. It is the study of immediate, direct, and most of all physical causes. These physical causes however follow the guidance of root, logical causes, as in the example above. So, let us see if we can answer the question: What makes a planet round scientifically, in other words physically.

A physical interaction must involve at least two physical bodies. The two bodies in the physical interaction are Matter; that is obvious. But what is the other body that applies the equal and opposite reaction against matter? Matter does not just collapse in on itself forming a beautifully round planet. Something must be forcing it to do so, equally from all sides. This something is subtle: space itself.

Now let us apply the earth/space balance to answer our question, why is Earth round: Matter, simply by existing, exerts an action, a force against space; evenly against all dimensions as the rule states, and space exerts an equal and opposite force evenly to all sides of matter. This interaction achieves balance. Mystery solved! Planets are round because space applies an even force from all angles.

Gravity as balance

Gravity is the establishment of balance between two opposing bodies, matter against space. The earth/space balance is equal in force and opposite in direction

Gravity as we see is not innate and self-evident to matter.  We must remember it is a physical cause-and-effect phenomenon. Matter initiates the action and space is there to return it.

A sphere is a fully balanced figure from all sides. A pyramid, a cube, or any other shape would indicate imbalance and thus cannot exist in outer space. But let us imagine that the sun was another shape, for example a cube. What would happen to the orbital paths of the planets in this case? Would they still be round? The cube shape would indicate a gravitational imbalance. Where the surface of the sun protrudes most, the corners, there the gravity would be the weakest. This weakness would mean that the space surrounding the sun has an imbalance of gravity: this imbalance would result in square orbits for the planets. A pyramid sun would create a triangular orbit, while a rectangular sun would create rectangular orbits.

The shape of an astronomic body creates the shape of the orbital path of its surrounding satellites. A round planet creates a round path and indicates a balance of gravity.

Let us now discuss the shapes of galaxies. They too are around! We find a geometry in their shape, and thus gravitational balance. However, unlike planets, which are completely balanced spheres, galaxies more closely resemble wheels. Indeed, just like wheels, they rotate. Galaxies very much are like gigantic spinning wheels in the skies of universe. It appears that also like wheels they are especially designed for rotation. Indeed, it is rotation that gives them their very shape and suits them for their motion.

We now see the importance of the circle or roundness in the universe. It is the shape of balance and thus it is the shape of the heavenly bodies, their orbits, as well as galaxies.

We have witnessed balance in space, but should we not also witness balance over time? We can argue that rotation of all satellites about a center is the establishment of balance over time. If planets did not orbit their suns, but stayed in one place, then those solar systems would be “off” because one point in space would have a planet on it all the time, and none of the others would. Only when a planet rotates about the center, does it spend an even amount of time about the plane of space. The same argument may be made for spin about the axis: by spinning planets and suns evenly face all the angles of space. Likewise, galaxies too spin about the center in order to evenly face all the angles of space, establishing balance over time.